What gluten does in dough
The secrets of a good dough lie in gluten, a controversial protein. Gluten is the molecular structure that holds doughs together and makes them elastic, so it is important to know how it works so that we can make spongy doughs (and not dumplings).
Flour has two proteins: gliadin (glycoprotein) and glutenin, which make doughs firm, resistant and stretchable. When flour is mixed with liquids and worked (manually or mechanically), the proteins begin to join together forming bonds between them. The union of gliadin and glutenin gives way to what we call gluten. Without the formation of this compound, no dough could be stretched or worked. The second important step in the formation of gluten is resting, and this is where patience comes into play. Resting the doughs means that we have to give the preparation a rest. Gluten needs time to find its space and form bonds between glutenin, gliadin and water. Depending on the recipe, this rest will be done in a warm or cold environment.
How not to activate gluten
PhD in Food Science (University of Havana, Cuba). Principal professor of the food engineering career. Coordinator of the research group “Chemistry and Food”. Faculty of Chemical and Health Sciences. Technical University of Machala, Ecuador.
Ahmad, A., Hayat, I., Arif, S., Masud, T., Khalid, N., & Ahmed, A. (2014). Mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects of soybean (glycine max). International Journal of Food Properties, 17(6), 1332-1354. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2012.714828
Bardella, M. T., Fredella, C., Prampolini, L., Molteni, N., Giunta, A. M., & Bianchi, P. A. (2000). Body composition and dietary intakes in adult celiac disease patients consuming a strict gluten-free diet. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72(4), 937-939.
Bénitez, B., Archile, A., Rangel, L., Ferrer, K., Barboza, Y., & Márquez, E. (2008). Proximal composition, microbiological and sensory evaluation of a cookie formulated from cassava flour and bovine plasma. Interscience, 33(1).
When gluten forms in flour
The effect of substituting 2.5, 5, 5, 7.5 and 10% wheat flour (HT) with oat flour (HA), corn flour (HM) and sorghum flour (HS) on dough rheological, textural and sensory properties of bread was evaluated. Water holding capacity (WRC), dough temperature, peak viscosity and final viscosity in flours were determined. Dough strength (F) and volume at 1 h of fermentation were determined. A sensory analysis was performed on bread to determine panelists’ preferences, as well as texture profile analysis (TPA). The results showed significant differences in the measurements performed. The volume of dough obtained when using HA at the four different levels showed no differences with HT (136.32 cm3 ± 4.62). Sensory analysis showed no differences when the bread was made with HA or HM at 10% and that obtained only from HT.
The effect of substitution of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% of wheat flour (HT) with oat flour (HA), corn (HM) and sorghum (HS) on the rheological properties of the dough, textural and sensory bread properties was evaluated. The water holding capacity (CRA), pasting temperature, peak viscosity and final viscosity in flour was determined. In dough, force (F) and volume within an hour of fermentation was measured. A sensory analysis of bread to determine the preferences of the panelists and a texture profile analysis (TPA) were also carried out. The results showed significant differences (p ˂ 0.05) among measurements. The volume of the dough using HA at the four levels did not show significant differences compared with HT (136.32 cm3 ± 4.62). Sensory analysis of bread showed no difference (p ˃ 0.05) between the bread made with 10% HA or HM and the HT only bread.
What happens if gluten is activated
Fig. 4: Plot of the fitted model for whole grain flavor. Elasticity. It was appreciated that flours are fundamental components in the perception of this attribute, with wheat flour having the greatest influence. According to equation 5, fat did not influence the sensory results, although it was appreciated in the instrumental measurements, so it is concluded that these differences were not perceived by the judges. Elasticity = 7.83C 1 + 5.63C 2 + 1.60 C 1 C 2 [R 2 = 0.90] (5) An adequate combination between the proportions of wheat and brown rice flours and fat contributes to improve elasticity, as shown in Figure 5.
Fig. 5: Graph of the fitted model for elasticity. Crumbling. In equation 6, a rather high coefficient of rice flour is seen to positively affect this variable, which is not desirable. This increase in crumbling is due to the fact that this flour, since it does not contain gluten, weakens the crumb structure. However, it can also be seen that a favorable decrease in the value of this variable is achieved by adding a high percentage of wheat flour and fat in the mix. Crumbling = 2.08C 1 + 6.33C 2 – 3.35C 1 C 2 – 0.74C 2 X 1 [ R 2 = 0.98] (6)