Male and female reproductive system
You lie on your back with your legs apart. The health care provider drapes a cloth across the width of the thighs below the scrotum or places wide strips of tape over the area. The scrotal sac is lifted slightly with the testicles positioned on each side. A clear gel is applied to the scrotal sac to help with the transmission of sound waves. A technician then moves a hand-held probe (ultrasound transducer) over the scrotum. The ultrasound machine sends out high-frequency sound waves, which reflect areas in the scrotum to create an image.Preparing for the exam
Gilbert BR, Fulgham PF. Urinary tract imaging: basic principles of urologic ultrasonography. In: Partin AW, Dmochowski RR, Kavoussi LR, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh-Wein Urology. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 4.Owen CA. Scrotum. In: Hagen-Ansert SL, ed. Textbook of Diagnostic Sonography. 8th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2018:chap 23.Sommers D, Winter T. The scrotum. In: Rumack CM, Levine D, eds. Diagnostic Ultrasound. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 22.
Internal and external male reproductive system
Rectum, urinary bladder, prostate and penis are removable. They can be separated in half by a cut through their median. The bony structure is held together by magnets and can therefore be easily separated in all its parts. Regarding the penis, in some parts the fasciae and skin have been partially separated, so that the vessels and nerves are visible. In the area of the scrotum and spermatic cord the skin has also been partially removed. The testicles and epididymis are visible. In the left portion the spermatic cord has been uncovered in layers and in the right portion the M. cremaster and spermatic fascia have been exposed internally.
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Male reproductive system parts
Chronic injuries develop gradually when there is pressure on the perineum for a long time. Long-lasting pressure can come from certain activities that are performed in a seated position, such as long-distance road cycling.
Perineal injuries are rare. One study found that 1 percent of motorcyclists and 3 percent of cyclists who were involved in traffic accidents suffered perineal injuries.1
If the blood vessels in the perineum are injured, the patient may develop erectile dysfunction (ED), which is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection firm enough for sexual intercourse. Injury to the urethra can also cause ED.
Rarely, a blunt injury to the perineum may burst a blood vessel inside the penis, causing a persistent partial erection that can last for days, weeks, or longer. This condition is called high-flow priapism and, if left untreated, could cause erectile dysfunction.2
Male and female reproductive system organs and functions
Depending on the type and stage of the cancer, lymph nodes around the large blood vessels (the aorta and inferior vena cava) in the back of the abdomen may be removed at the same time as the orchiectomy or during a second operation. It is not necessary to remove lymph nodes in all people with testicular cancer. Therefore, it is important to discuss this issue (and the options) with your doctor.
This is a complex and time-consuming operation. In most cases, a large incision (curt) is made in the lower half of the abdomen to remove the lymph nodes. This operation should be performed by a surgeon who has experience performing this operation, as experience is important.
Patients recover much faster from this operation than with the conventional procedure and are able to walk shortly after surgery. There is usually less pain and patients start eating sooner.
Laparoscopic surgery appears to be much easier on the patient, but doctors are not sure if it is as safe and effective as conventional “open” surgery in removing all the lymph nodes that might have cancer. Because of this doubt, doctors often recommend chemotherapy after laparoscopic surgery if cancer is found in the lymph nodes.